REFOCUS: Current & Future Search Interface Requirements for German-speaking Users

REFOCUSWhen looking at current research, there is plenty of existing work inquiring into how users use search engines1 and how future search interfaces could look like2. Yet, an investigation of users’ perceptions of and expectations towards current and future search interfaces is still missing.

Therefore, at this year’s International Conference on WWW/Internet (ICWI ’16) my co-author Martin Gaedke presented our paper “REFOCUS: Current & Future Search Interface Requirements for German-speaking Users”, which we wrote together with Andreas Both. To give you an idea of what our work aims at, I’m going to provide a step-by-step explanation of the research paper’s title.

REFOCUS. An acronym for Requirements for Current & Future Search Interfaces.

Search Interface Requirements. From an exploratory study with both qualitative and quantitative questions we have derived a set comprising 11 requirements for search interfaces. The initial set of requirements was validated by 12 dedicated experts.

Current. The requirements shall be valid for current search interfaces. According to the experts’ reviews, this applies to eight of the requirements.

Future. Also, the set of requirements shall inform the design and development of future search interfaces. According to the experts’ reviews, this applies to ten of the requirements. Supporting the design of future search interfaces is particularly important with the wide variety of Internet-capable novel devices, like cutting-edge video game consoles, in mind.

German-speaking Users. Due to the demographics of our participants, the set of requirements can be considered to be valid for German-speaking Internet users. 87.3% of the participants were German while 96.6% lived in a German-speaking country at the time of the survey.

If this sounds interesting to you, please go check out our research paper at ResearchGate or arXiv. The original publication will be available via the IADIS Digital Library.

1 For instance, http://www.pewinternet.org/2012/03/09/search-engine-use-2012/ (accessed November 8, 2016).
2 For instance, Hearst, M. A. ‘Natural’ Search User Interfaces. In Commun. ACM 54(11), 2011.

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Enabling Industry 4.0 with HoloBuilder

At this year’s INFORMATIK conference held by the GI in Cottbus, I had the chance to present a research paper (full text here) about HoloBuilder—officially titled “Enabling Industry 4.0 with holobuilder”1—that I wrote together with my colleagues Kristina Tenhaft, Simon Heinen and Harry Handorf. In our paper, we examine HoloBuilder from a research rather than a marketing perspective by explaining and demonstrating how it acts as an enabler for Industry 4.0.

The paper was presented in the session named “Industry 4.0: Computer Science Forms New Production Systems”, which featured a selection of renowned experts for Industry 4.0—including Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Liggesmeyer of TU Kaiserslautern, Prof. Dr. Jürgen Jasperneite of OWL University and Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jörg Wollert of Aachen University of Applied Sciences, among others. The presenters set a particular focus on topics such as Internet of Things, smart factories, wireless communication and OPC UA, with which our presentation fitted in seamlessly—as will be explained in the following. The feedback we received was consistently positive.

Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 was the original use case of our platform, i.e., the use case based on which the first prototypes had been created. From those, the current form of HoloBuilder evolved. The term Industry 4.0 was first coined in the context of the High-Tech Strategy 2020 of the German government. Basically, the smart factory, in which people, machines and products are ubiquitously interconnected, is at the center of Industry 4.0.2 Particular focus is moreover on cyber-physical systems, which merge the virtual and the real world.

HoloBuilder & Industry 4.0

From the technical perspective, implementing Industry 4.0 to a high degree means realizing the smart factory including cyber-physical systems. For this, two prime concepts to consider are Augmented Reality and machine-to-machine communication. Augmented Reality (AR) adds virtual objects to the real world in a see-through scenario, e.g., with smart glasses or a tablet PC. On the one hand, AR provides a “fusion of the physical and the virtual world”3 and thus forms a framework for cyber-physical systems while on the other hand it facilitates efficient human–machine interfaces. Yet, AR alone cannot realize a smart factory, because it only caters for displaying objects, which is a form of one-way communication. Hence, AR needs to be complemented with capabilities for machine-to-machine communication (M2M).

Current temperature of a machine displayed in AR.
Current temperature of a machine displayed in AR.

To enable the implementation of Industry 4.0, HoloBuilder has been designed as a platform that makes it possible for everyone concerned to create and consume arbitrary AR content. This is a particular advantage over other AR solutions, which require specific skills for creating the desired content, among other things. In contrast, HoloBuilder facilitates end-user design, which enables, e.g., engineers and mechanics without programming skills to create AR applications in the context of Industry 4.0. To also cater for M2M, the platform as well incorporates OPC UA capabilities, which is a standardized protocol. In this way, information provided by a machine (e.g., its current temperature) can be presented in terms of virtual objects in an AR scenario. Moreover, by manipulating such virtual objects, the user can also give commands to the machine via OPC UA. This makes it possible to, e.g., display a virtual button that can switch a machine on or off.

Design Principles

Hermann et al.4 define six design principles for Industry 4.0, upon which we build to show HoloBuilder’s potential for being an enabler of Industry 4.0:

  • Interoperability,
  • Virtualization,
  • Decentralization,
  • Real-Time Capability,
  • Service Orientation and
  • Modularity.

Conclusion

To summarize the above, Augmented Reality and machine-to-machine communication are two core principles to be considered when implementing Industry 4.0 in terms of a smart factory with cyber-physical systems. HoloBuilder, a platform for end-user design of arbitrary AR content, provides support for both. Our platform moreover fulfills all of the six design principles for Industry 4.0, which underpins HoloBuilder’s potential as an enabler.

Our paper has been published in the proceedings of the 2015 INFORMATIK conference and is also available via ResearchGate (including full text).

1 At the time the paper was accepted, we still had the company-internal convention to write HoloBuilder in lowercase letters, which has changed by now.
2 http://www.plattform-i40.de/
3 Kagermann, Henning: Chancen von Industrie 4.0 nutzen [Taking the Chances of Industry 4.0]. In (Bauernhansl, Thomas; ten Hompel, Michael; Vogel-Heuser, Birgit, eds): Industrie 4.0 in Produktion, Automatisierung und Logistik [Industry 4.0 in Production, Automation and Logistics], pp. 603–614. Springer, 2014.
4 Hermann, Mario; Pentek, Tobias; Otto, Boris: Design Principles for Industrie 4.0 Scenarios: A Literature Review. 2015. Working Paper No. 01/2015, Audi Stiftungslehrstuhl Supply Net Order Management, TU Dortmund.

#papershizzle

Phew! It was a rather busy (that’s why I haven’t been posting in a while), but also very successful start into the new year. A total of three full papers have been accepted at various conferences and journals. So basically, I’ve been revising and resubmitting papers since Christmas.

First, our paper about Inuit has been accepted at the 4th International Conference on Design, User Experience and Usability (DUXU), which will be held as a part of HCI International 2015 in Los Angeles, California. Inuit is a new usability instrument for interfaces that has been specifically designed for our concept of Usability-based Split Testing. An instrument of this kind contains a set of observable items that are used to predict a latent (i.e., non-observable) variable—in our case, usability. For instance, a person’s intelligence is a latent variable that can only be assessed with a number of specific questions (or items). Therefore, IQ tests are instruments.

Second, an article that is an extended version of our ICWE 2014 paper about SMR has been conditionally accepted by the Journal of Web Engineering (JWE). SMR is a streaming-based system that allows for the prediction of search result relevance from user interactions. In the extended version, we further elaborate on specifics of SMR’s data processing algorithm and complexity. Also, we describe the integration of our system into a real-world industry setting.

Image taken from http://chi2015.acm.org/.

Finally—and probably most importantly—our paper titled “S.O.S.: Does Your Search Engine Results Page (SERP) Need Help?” has been accepted at CHI 2015, which is the premier conference on human–computer interaction and will take place in Seoul! What a great success 🙂 . S.O.S. is the abbreviation for SERP Optimization Suite, which comprises two components. (1) WaPPU, which is a tool for inferring usability scores from users’ interactions with an interface. WaPPU was already presented at ICWE 2014 and has been augmented with (2) a catalog of best practices to form S.O.S. That catalog contains potential causes and corresponding countermeasures for suboptimal usability scores. An extension to WaPPU now automatically detects such suboptimal scores and proposes optimizations based on the catalog.

I am very excited about these accepted papers and definitely looking forward to presenting them to an audience of world-renowned experts. As a side note, a revised and extended version of my post titled What is ›Usability‹? has been published as a technical report in the series “Chemnitzer Informatik-Berichte” (roughly translated: “Computer Science Reports of Chemnitz University of Technology”).

So after this very successful start of the year, let’s see what else 2015 will bring. Stay tuned! 🙂

motherfuckingwebsite.com Redesigned. My Other Poster Presented at #ICWE2014

(Disclaimer: motherfuckingwebsite.com was not made by me!)

Device-agnostic design poster presented @ ICWE 2014From my original post about redesigning motherfuckingwebsite.com (see here), I have created a poster along with a corresponding short paper, which have been presented at the 2014 International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE).

The short paper will be included in the conference proceedings published by Springer: Maximilian Speicher (2014). “Paving the Path to Device-agnostic and Content-centric Web Design”. In Proc. ICWE (Posters).

Special thanks go to Fred Funke, who helped with designing the poster!

How to Infer Usability from User Interactions. My Poster Presented at #ICWE2014

WaPPU poster presented @ ICWE 2014The corresponding publications are:

  • Maximilian Speicher, Andreas Both and Martin Gaedke (2014). “Ensuring Web Interface Quality through Usability-based Split Testing”. In Proc. ICWE.
  • Maximilian Speicher, Andreas Both and Martin Gaedke (2014). “WaPPU: Usability-based A/B Testing”. In Proc. ICWE (Demos).

For more information about WaPPU, please see this previous post. Special thanks go to Fred Funke, who helped with designing the poster!